I am professor in Biblical and Jewish Studies at NLA University College, Oslo. From 1992 I was a member of the international team publishing the Dead Sea Scrolls. 2003-2007 I headed the Nordic Network in Qumran Studies. At the moment I am leading a group of scholars who will publish Dead Sea scrolls and artifacts in the Norwegian-based Schøyen Collection. Here you will find news of my research and some of my articles in Dead Sea Scrolls and biblical studies. I can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org
By September 2011 I made a new translation of the Gabriel Inscription, a text highly relevant for understanding the New Testament and early Jewish eschatological expectations. My arguments for this translation appeared in Semitica 54/2012. Elgvin, Semitica 54 (2012), 221-232
In April 2013 published another article on this text in Semitica 55, where I pointed to interesting parallels between the Gabriel Inscription and a passage in the Talmud. Both texts read Psalm 2 as prophetic information about the end-time war. Semitica 55 (2013) 139-145
Photo by permission from Dr. David and Jemima Jezelsohn, Zürich; Bruce Zuckerman, Kenneth Zuckerman, and Marilyn Lundberg.
Gabriel Inscription, English
NEWS FROM THE SCHØYEN COLLECTION -update 28.04.2013-
(which will be published in Gleanings from the Caves at T&T Clark, early 2014). Together with Esther Eshel (Bar Ilan), Årstein Justnes and Kipp Davis (University of Agder) I am working on fragments from 29 scrolls (+ scraps of four more), twenty of these so far unpublished. 22 are biblical, some sectarian, five apocryphal or Enochic (including a fragment from an Aramaic eschatological text and two ‘new’ copies of 1 Enoch). And there is a new copy of a sectarian biblical commentary. Most of the fragments were found by the Bedouin in Cave 4, while two may derive from Bar Kokhba caves. Some small fragments from Wadi el-Daliyeh are being edited by Jan Dusek. Most of the biblical fragments display textual variants, some cast new light on the literary development of books in the Hebrew Bible. The collection includes the first known fragment of Nehemiah from the Judean Desert, as well as fragments with interesting textual variants of books such as Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, 1 Samuel, Kings, Jeremiah, Joel, Ruth, and Proverbs. The Jeremiah fragment is related to the Septuagint’s version of Jeremiah, and preserves a shorter and more original version of six verses from Jeremiah 3. The photograph features a Tobit fragment, published by Hallermayer and myself as part of 4QpapTobit a, but recently reclassified as a new papyrus copy of Tobit, 4Q196a.
The fragments were recently rephotographed by Bruce Zuckerman and his team, and we are scrutinizing the new images. Last August the text team worked together on the material in Kristiansand, and agreed on problematic readings and identifications. After publication of Gleanings from the Caves the images will be available for scholars through Inscriptifact.
In our work we use a DinoLite digital microscope, which enables us to make infrared photographs of details of the fragment. This image shows the edge of a crunched fragment of Joel, where a lamed and remnants of more letters appear on the fold.
Artifacts from the Judean Desert such as a scroll jar, a palm fiber pen, a bronze altar and inkwell (perhaps found in Nahal Hever) will also be presented in the forthcoming volume. Jan Gunneweg, Ira Rabin, and Steve Pfann have been studying these artifacts and will contribute to the forthcoming volume. Israeli textile expert Naama Sukenik recently studied the Temple Scroll wrapper with its linen cord and is comparing it with other textiles from Qumran. Michael Langlois, Strassbourg, will analyze the palaeography of the Schøyen fragments.
1QSb Rule of Benedictions (see under 4.6)
NEW EDITION OF DJD 1 AND PUBLIC FUNDING OF OUR RESEARCH
Volume 1 of Discoveries in the Judeaen Desert will appear in a reworked edition, sixty years after its first publication. Together with Årstein Justnes (University of Agder, Kristiansand) I am leading a team of Nordic, French and Israeli scholars who will be responsible for this project. The edition will be part of a new series with Brill publishers, and is scheduled for publication in 2015. The scholars involved gathered in Kristiansand in August to start the work on the new text editions.
The Norwegian Research Council and University of Agder have given us a generous four-year funding for the DJD 1 and Schøyen projects, entitled ‘Biblical’ Texts Older than the Bible: New Texts, New Publications, New Approaches. From August 2012 the Canadian scholar Kipp Davis is part of the team in a post-doctoral reasearch position.
In March 2013 I examined the relevant plates in the scrollery of Israel Antiquities authority. In this work we use a DinoLite digital microscope to get infrared detailed captions of the fragments. The IAA got so ‘jealous’ that they asked me for details so that they could acquire their own DinoLite. By next year we hope to rephotograph and study the fragments kept by the Jordanian authorities in Amman.
The World of Jesus and the Early Church, edited by C.A. Evans, was published by Hendrickson in November 2011. It includes articles on scripture interpretation, archaeology, and identity in Jewish and early Christian communities. My article on the heavenly temple draws lines from the Hebrew Bible and Qumran writings to Hebrews and the Revelation of John. Heavenly temple, Hebrews, Revelation
This article elaborates the motif of the heavenly temple and God’s angelic entourage in the Hebrew Bible and Qumran writings, a tradition treasured especially by priests and Levites: “Temple Mysticism and the Temple of Men.” In The Dead Sea Scrolls: Text and Context (STDJ 90; C. Hempel, ed.; Leiden: Brill: 2010), 227-42. Heavenly and earthly sanctuary
A review article on the scrolls and biblical scholarship, where I in particular engage with the debate on the status of authoritative Jewish writings in the late second temple period. Svensk Exegetisk Årsbok 73 (2008). Scrolls and Biblical Scholarship
In this article I elaborate the Jewish background of the Revelation of John, an apocalyptic and ‘militant’ voice among the New Testament writings. I suggest that John of Patmos may be a Levite with knowledge of temple tradition who had experienced the Romans’ crushing of the Jewish revolt: “Priests on Earth as in Heaven. Jewish Light on the Book of Revelation.” In Echoes From the Caves. Qumran and the New Testament (STDJ 85; F. Garcia Martinez, ed.; Leiden: Brill, 2009), 257-78. Jewish context of Revelation
An increasing number of scholars argue that Isaiah 53 originally did not portray an individual suffering for others. In this popular article I show that the servant songs of Isaiah 50 and 53 were interpreted on an individual both in later texts of the Hebrew Bible and in Qumran writings (Mishkan 43/2005). mishkan Isaiah 53
A popular article on the interpretation of the biblical law on the culprit who is hanged on the tre to die (Deut 21:22-23) in early Jewish texts including the New Testament [Themelios 22 (1997), 14-21]. themelios messiah
This short article, “The Yahad is More Than the Qumran,” is possibly the best seven pages I have written [in Enoch and Qumran Origins. New Light on a Forgotten Connection (G. Boccacini, ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005), 273-9]. These ideas were later elaborated by Alison Schofield in her dissertation From Qumran to the Yahad, cf. also John Collins’ recent Beyond the Qumran Community. Yahad more than Qumran
A scanned version of my 1997/98 dissertation from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, “An Analysis of 4QInstruction,” can be found here: http://4reid.no/4QInstruction The image shows the second largest fragment of the scroll 4Q416, one of eight copies of this catechetic pre-Essene writing.